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Monday, April 29, 2013

Testing mediating effects directly with WarpPLS

Since version 3.0, WarpPLS allows users to test mediating effects directly through inspection of coefficients generated for indirect and total effects, which include P values.

This allows for the direct test, without having to resort to intermediate calculations (e.g., Baron & Kenny; Preacher & Hayes), of mediation of various levels of complexity (e.g., multiple mediation).

WarpPLS also calculates total effects and respective P values, in addition to indirect effects. All of these are calculated whether linear or nonlinear analyses are conducted.

The two video clips below explain how to interpret indirect and total effects, and how to isolate complex mediating effects:

- View Indirect and Total Effects in WarpPLS

- Isolate Mediating Effects in WarpPLS

If you still want to use the Baron & Kenny and/or Preacher & Hayes approaches, please see the following blog posts:


Anonymous said...

I am trying to respond to a comment by a journal reviewer.

Could you explain how "moderated mediation", "mediated moderation" and "conditional indirect effect" can be tested using Warppls? Thanks

- Kevin

Ned Kock said...

The following video clips may be useful in this respect:

Ned Kock said...

Also, see the following blog post and links therein:

Ramón said...

Hi, I´ve been using warps for a while. I´m conducting a moderation analysis but I couldn't find the conditional effect results. Where can I find them? Kind regards, Ramón

Ned Kock said...

Hi Ramon. The coefficients for moderating effects are shown in the path coefficients table under the columns with an “*” symbol. They are also shown in the model graph with results, but only up to two decimals. See the YouTube video linked below.

Mr. Me said...

Hi Ned: thanks for your reply. Sorry I didn't explain my self correctly. What I want to know where can't I find the conditional effect. conditional effects of X on Y at values of the moderator. What happens in the relationship of X and Y when the moderator is -1 SD, Mean and +1 SD. Kind regards

Ned Kock said...

Maybe you are referring to these graphs:

The link above, as well as other links that may be relevant in this context, are available from:

Muhammad Rasyid Abdillah said...

Hello Ned Kock
Can you explain, how to analyze multiple mediations with WarpPLS?

Ned Kock said...

Hi Muhammad. The video titled "View Indirect and Total Effects in WarpPLS", available from, is probably what you are looking for.

Ned Kock said...

Also worth taking a look at, regarding mediation analyses, is the following pub., available from

Kock, N. (2014). Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 10(3), 1-13.

Ramón said...

I would like to know how to conduct the conditional effect in warpls. We bought an institutional license for our university.

Ned Kock said...

Hi Ramon. I am not sure I understand the question.

Ramón said...

The conditional effect is the effect of the independent variable onnthe dependent variable when the moderator is -1sd, mean and +1sd. It shows the moderator effect under those conditions

Ned Kock said...

Is this related to the conditional probabilistic queries feature of WarpPLS? The video titled "Explore Conditional Probabilistic Queries in WarpPLS", available from, explains this feature quite well I think (at a basic level).

Muhammad Rasyid Abdillah said...

Thank You For your explanation Dr.Kock.
So.How about the specific indirect effect (specific mediation)? Can WarpPLS calculate specific mediation?

Ramón said...

Thanks Ned. In this video you will see what I’m talking about. At minute 7, the presenter shows the conditional effect (although he uses non standardized effects). If you can incorporate this feature in warppls it would be awesome. Also the mediated moderated index.

Ned Kock said...

The video actually shows how to implement some analyses employing Hayes' Process approach, which has been around for a while. This approach enables some fairly interesting types of analyses, with significant effort being required from users.

Those analyses, and arguably other, much more complex, analyses, can be relatively easily performed though a combination of the WarpPLS features enabling moderating effects and full latent growth analyses. The following materials, available from, illustrate several of the related capabilities.

Conduct a Moderating Effects Analysis in WarpPLS
View Moderating Effects via 3D and 2D Graphs in WarpPLS
Explore Full Latent Growth in WarpPLS

Kock, N. (2014). Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 10(3), 1-13.
Kock, N., & Gaskins, L. (2016). Simpson’s paradox, moderation, and the emergence of quadratic relationships in path models: An information systems illustration. International Journal of Applied Nonlinear Science, 2(3), 200-234.
Kock, N. (2017). WarpPLS User Manual: Version 6.0. Laredo, TX: ScriptWarp Systems.

Also, WarpPLS allows one to bring nonlinearity into the picture when conducting these types of analyses. Kock & Gaskins (2016) above discusses some interesting properties of mediated-moderation and moderated-mediation effects, in terms of inducing nonlinearity and enabling causality assessment.

By the way, are you attending our Workshop on PLS-SEM with WarpPLS on the annual PLS Applications Symposium? See: