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Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Create and use second order latent variables in WarpPLS: YouTube video

A new YouTube video for WarpPLS is available; please see link below.

The video shows how to create and use second (and higher) order latent variables with the structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis software WarpPLS.



wasim barkat said...

thank you Prof for second order construct video. basically in my research I am using four dimensions with various items. All items fulfill accepted criteria of >0.5. But when I put these four dimensions in a second order construct than among four one construct load below .5. kindly suggest me a salutation.


Ned Kock said...

Second order LVs often end up being multidimensional, with non-redundant indicators – and thus low loadings. As such, they should pass formative measurement criteria, as opposed to reflective criteria. I hope that the materials linked below can be of use in connection with this.

Kock, N., & Mayfield, M. (2015). PLS-based SEM algorithms: The good neighbor assumption, collinearity, and nonlinearity. Information Management and Business Review, 7(2), 113-130.

Kock, N. (2014). Advanced mediating effects tests, multi-group analyses, and measurement model assessments in PLS-based SEM. International Journal of e-Collaboration, 10(3), 1-13.

(For the full text links to the above and other publications, see under “Publications” at:

User Manual (link to specific page):

The formative-reflective measurement dichotomy

The links above, as well as other links that may be relevant in this context, are available from: