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Thursday, January 28, 2010

How many resamples to use in bootstrapping?

The default number of resamples is 100 for bootstrapping in WarpPLS. This setting can be modified by entering a different number in the appropriate edit box. (Please note that we are talking about the number of resamples here, not the original data sample size.)

Leaving the number of resamples for bootstrapping as 100 is recommended because it has been shown that higher numbers of resamples lead to negligible improvements in the reliability of P values; in fact, even setting the number of resamples at 50 is likely to lead to fairly reliable P value estimates (Efron et al., 2004).

Conversely, increasing the number of resamples well beyond 100 leads to a higher computation load on the software, making the software look like it is having a hard time coming up with the results. In very complex models, a high number of resamples may make the software run very slowly.

Some researchers have suggested in the past that a large number of resamples can address problems with the data, such as the presence of outliers due to errors in data collection. This opinion is not shared by the original developer of the bootstrapping method, Bradley Efron (see, e.g., Efron et al., 2004).


Efron, B., Rogosa, D., & Tibshirani, R. (2004). Resampling methods of estimation. In N.J. Smelser, & P.B. Baltes (Eds.). International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 13216-13220). New York, NY: Elsevier.

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